The Lie of History

Interpreting the relationship between people and their environment for developing future scenarios of people on Earth requires, as a first step, an understanding of human history beyond current accounts, which are mostly informed by the political ideologies of the
“modern” nation-state.

This chapter contends that the nation-state, which still shapes the current political arena, is beset by inherent contradictions that are characteristic of complex societies, and that the depletion of natural resources, pollution, explosive population growth, and urbanization are historical outcomes of tendencies to increase productivity and sustain economic growth, often at the expense of masses of people.

The emergence of multinational corporations and hegemonic international political institutions (political and financial) represent a menace to the future of people on Earth because the legitimization of the sovereignty of the nation-state is being eroded and masses of
poor, disadvantaged individuals in many different settings have become cognizant of their predicament and are disenchanted with current hegemonic political regimes and ideologies these individuals are opting for alternative models of identity and orientations.



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