Nile flood discharge during the Medieval Climate Anomaly
Records of Nile flood discharge from AD 930 to 1450 reveal pronounced variability in the frequency of extreme floods due to differential influence of global climatic forcing mechanisms on the two main catchment areas of the Nile tributaries, namely Equatorial Africa and the Ethiopian Highlands.
A record of variations in Nile flood discharge dating back to the 7th century AD (Hassan, 1981) provides a basis for analyzing the relationship between Nile floods, climate change, and famines in Egypt during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA).
The volume of Nile flood discharge, as well as its seasonality, is primarily governed by the impact of climate on rainfall over the Nile catchment areas in Ethiopia and Equatorial Africa.
Throughout Egyptian history, Nile floods influenced food production, which depended on Nile water for irrigation and the amount of silt annually deposited on the floodplain.
Correction and calibration of the primary historical annual records of Nile minimal and maximal flood levels,followed by an analysis of the calibrated data reveal that Nile floods discharge during the MCA interval from AD 930 to 1350 were not constant.